Articles Tagged with: Notes to Chapter 4

Notes to Chapter 4


1. [Atik Defter 14].
2. See Alan Duben and Cem Behar ƒstanbul Households: Marriage, Family and Fertility, 1880–1940, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 189–193.
3. Stanford J. Shaw “The Population of Istanbul in the 19th Century,” International Journal of Middle-Eastern Studies, 10, 1979, pp. 265–277.
4. “Esami-i mahallât,…” 1877. In this listing Kasap ƒlyas is cited as Mahalle-i Kasap ƒlyas kurb-ü iskele-i Davutpaœa (the Kasap ƒlyas mahalle near the Davutpaœa wharf).
5. To calculate median and mean ages, the ages stated in the census in lunar years (Hegirian calendar) had to be converted to solar years (Gregorian calendar).
6. Duben and Behar ƒstanbul Households,pp. 49–50.
7. We have assumed that the person ranked first in the ordering of the household members in the census documents was the head of that household.
8. State Institute of Statistics 1990 Population Census, Social and Economic Characteristics, Ankara, 1993.
9. Duben and Behar ƒstanbul Households,pp. 48ff.
10. Ibid., p. 59.
11. Ibid., p. 59.
12. Behar “Polygyny in Istanbul (1885–1926),” Middle Eastern Studies, London, 27/3, 1991, pp. 477–486.
13. Duben and Behar ƒstanbul Households, p. 126.
14. Shaw “Population of Istanbul in the 19th Century,” pp. 265–277.
15. For the details of the classification, see Peter Laslett “Family and Household as Work Group and Kin Group: Areas of Traditional Europe Compared,” in Richard Wall, Jean Robin, and Peter Laslett (eds.) Family Forms in Historic Europe, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 513–563. On household types in the whole of Istanbul during the 1885 census, see Duben and Behar ƒstanbul Households, pp. 48–69.
16. On slavery and slave trade in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century see Ehud R. Toledano The Ottoman Slave Trade and Its Suppression, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1982; and Hakan Erdem Slavery and its Demise in the Ottoman Empire, 1800–1909, London, Macmillan, 1996. This last work provides a large number of insights into the social status of slaves and slavery in the late Ottoman Empire.
17. For more details on these communities of black female manumitted slaves in Istanbul see Erdem Slavery and Its Demise in the Ottoman Empire.
18. Ibid.
19. Toledano Ottoman Slave Trade and Its Suppression.
20. [D3/pp. 1–23].
21. “.. . tabaka-yı ulyâda üç bab oda ve bir kiler ve bir abdesthane ve kenif ve bir sofa ve vüstada üç bab oda ve bir abdesthane ve kenif ve bir sofa ve süflâda bir matbah ve bir kenif ve bir kömürlük ve selâmlık tâbir olunan mahalde ulyâda bir bab oda ve abdesthane ve vüstada bir bab oda ve abdesthane ve bir kenif ve bir ahır ve bir-i ma ve bir miktar bahçe ve sokak kapılarını müœtemil bir bab mülk konak….” [ISA-DM], 8/110, p. 2a, 1 Jumada II 1261, [June 7, 1845].
22. “. . .fevkânî iki bab oda ve sofa ve tahtânî iki bab oda ve hamam ve berber ma’ dükkân….” [ISA-DM], 8/120, p. 3a, 6 Shaban 1270 [May 4, 1854].
23. 1907 Census Roster for the Kasap ƒlyas mahalle [Eski Esas 23].
24. [D3/pp. 1–26].
25. The last entry by his own hand in the muhtar’s notebooks is dated from November 1903 [D3/p. 126]. Subsequent entries are by another hand. In 1907 Osman Efendi had already passed away, and the new census entries mention his daughter as “daughter of the late Osman Efendi.” We have accepted 1904 as the probable year of his death.
26. For more details on the history of these two dervish lodges, see the two entries by Baha Tanman “Bekâr bey tekkesi,” and “Taœçı tekkesi,” in Dünden Bugüne Istanbul Ansiklopedisi (Encyclopedia of Istanbul yesterday and today), Istanbul, Tarih Vakfı Yayınları, 1995, Vols. 2 and 7.
27. See Klaus Kreiser “Medresen und Derwischkonvente in ƒstanbul: Quantitative Aspekte,” Economie et Sociétés dans l’Empire Ottoman, Paris, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1983, pp. 109–127.
28. See Mübahat S. Kütüko™lu “1869’da faal ƒstanbul Medreseleri” (The Istanbul medreses active in 1869), ƒstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Tarih Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7–8, 1977, pp. 277–393.
29. See Sedat Kumbaracılar “ƒlk kız Okullarımız nasıl kuruldu?” (How were our first schools for girls founded?), Hayat Tarih Mecmuası, 4, May 1969, pp. 77–83.
30. See Mehmet Ö. Alkan Tanzimattan Cumhuriyete Modernleœme Sürecinde E™itim ƒstatistikleri, 1839–1924 (Educational statistics in the modernization process from the Tanzimat to the republic, 1839–1924), Ankara, State Institute of Statistics (Historical Statistics Series, Vol. 6), 2000, p. 55.
31. Maps drawn in 1913–1914 by the Deutsches Syndikat für Stadtebauliche Arbeiten in der Türkei—Konstantinopel, Istanbul, Istanbul Municipality Atatürk Library, Maps Section [912–563 IST, L/5, 1913–1914].
32. See Zeynep Çelik The Remaking of Istanbul—Portrait of an Ottoman City in the Nineteenth Century, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1986.
33. Interview conducted on July 29, 1995.
34. [D3/pp. 1—26].
35. See Alkan Tanzimattan Cumhuriyete Modernleœme Sürecinde E™itim ƒstatistikleri, p. 56.
36. See Ziya Kazıcı “1093(1682) Yılında çeœitlerine göre ƒstanbul’da dükkânlar” (Different types of shops in Istanbul in 1093–1682), Tarih Boyunca ƒstanbul Semineri—Bildiriler, ƒstanbul, ƒstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi, 1979, pp. 239–279.
37. Vakfiyeler—X.
38. The warehouse for straw is described as follows: “… bir taraftan beygir hanı, bir taraftan Hacı Ahmed’in kömür mahzeni, cidar-ı hısn ve tarik-i ‘amm ile mahdûd bir bâb samanhane….” [ƒSA-DM 8/5, p. 27a].
39. “.. . bir bâb menzil ve tahtında bir bâb keresteci dükkânı,…” Vakfiyeler—X.
40. “.. . fi’l-asl keresteci dükkânı elyevm ifrazdan bâkî kalan saman ma™azası,…” Vakfiyeler—X.
41. “…Davudpaœa ƒskelesinde eksik çeki taœıyla odun satan gidiler,…” Hayati Develi (ed.) XVIII. Yüzyıl Istanbul Hayatına dair Risale-i Garibe (A strange tract on life in Istanbul in the eighteenth century), Istanbul, Kitabevi, 1998, p. 23.
42. [ISA-DM 8/141], pp. 23a and 128a. There is another instance of a street being identified by reference to its inhabitants in the late nineteenth century. In a court case dating from 1879 a street in the mahalle was referred to as the street of the Arabs (arablar soka™ı), probably because a number of the manumitted female black slaves were living in it.
43. [ISA-DM 8/154], p. 3a.
44. “…Davudpaœa ƒskelesinde Kömürcüler yangın,…” Osman Nuri Ergin Mecelle-i Umûr-u Belediye, Vol. 3, Istanbul, 1995, p. 1228.
45. Interview conducted on July 29, 1995.
46. Interview conducted on December 2, 1994.
47. Interview conducted on September 11, 1994.
48. “Davud Paœa ƒskelesi kurbünde Kasap ƒlyas mahallesi muhtarı.”
49. Two regulations were issued on the matter, in 1883 and in 1902. For more details on the late Ottoman population registration schemes and the information contained therein see Behar “The 1300 (a.h.) and 1322 (a.h.) Tahrirs as Sources for Ottoman Historical demography,” Istanbul, Bo™aziçi University Research Papers, 1985; Behar “Sources pour la Démographie Historique de l’Empire Ottoman: les Tahrir de 1885 et 1907,” Population (Paris), 53/1–2, 1998, pp. 161–181.
50. “. . . Hamam Odaları—18—Piyade Nizamiye otuz beœinci alayın dördüncü taburunun kâtibi Mehmet Tevfik efendinin hemœiresi Vahide hanım dul olup ve maiœeti olmayıp œayan-ı rahmet bulundu™u….” [D3/p. 7].
51. “. . . Samatya Caddesi 53—.. . Fidan kalfa bint-i Abdullah, mevlidi 1250, nâmizaç olup hastahaneye….” [D3/p. 21].
52. “.. . Saide hanımın biraderi ƒsmail Zühdü efendi’den ki ikinci ordu, onbeœinci alay ikinci nizamiye taburu ikinci bölük mülâzım-ı evvelidir, sipariœ-i maaœı vardır….” [D2/p. 78b].
53. “.. . Samatya Caddesi 5—Gümrük kolcusu Mehmet a™a’ya tekaüt maaœı yüz kırk dört kuruœ olarak tahsis olunmuœtur.. . .” [D2/p. 15b].
54. “.. . Bab-ı seraskerî ketebesinden müteveffa Halim efendi zevcesi Hafize Resmiye hanım elyevm berhayat ve ere varmamıœtır….” [D3/p. 86].
55. “.. . Kola™ası ƒbrahim ¥em’i efendinin eski mühr-ü zatisi zayi olup elyevm ittihaz etmiœ idü™ü mührü mühr-ü zatisi olup emniyet sandı™ında olan emanetini ahz edece™ini….” [D2/p. 25b].
56. “… âdil ve makbûlü’œ-œehadet idü™ü….” [D2/p. 4a].
57. “… ehl-i ırz gürûhundan idü™ü….” [D2/p. 46a].
58. “Mekteb -i idadi-yi tıbbiye-i œâhâne birinci senesi œâkirdanından Hayri, müddet-i mezuniyetinde pederinin yanında beytutet edece™i….” [D2/p. 20b].
59. “… kat’iyen fera™ ile muamele –i lâzımesinin icrası zımnında….” [D2/p. 5b].
60. “… ƒskele 42—Süleyman a™a iœbu ma™azayı Nisan 1306 iptidasına kadar Nikola veled-i Mihale sekiz yüz kuruœa icar edip dört yüzü peœinen bakiyesi ¥ubat iptidasında alınacaktır….” [D2/p. 49a].
61. “… Helvacı 8—Astarcı Mehmed efendi zevcesi Fatma bint-i Abdullah’ın dört taksit senevî yüz kuruœ faizli esham-i cedidesi oldu™u….” [D2/p. 52a].
62. The literacy rate for adult males was around 25 percent in late nineteenthand early twentieth-century Istanbul. We have reached this estimate by using declared occupations as a proxy for literacy. No literacy rate can be calculated for females, though, very few having any declared occupation in the Ottoman censuses. The literacy rate for adult males in the Kasap ƒlyas mahalle was probably slightly lower than that for Istanbul as a whole.
63. [D3/pp. 1–23].
64. Interview conducted on July 29, 1995.

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